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我国环境责任保险法律体系建设探究

时间:2016-04-14 来源:未知 作者:学术堂 本文字数:5349字

    本篇论文目录导航:

【题目】我国环境责任保险法律体系建设探究 
【第一章】环境责任保险制度优化分析引言 
【第二章】环境责任保险的概述 
【第三章】环境责任保险的现状及其存在的问题 
【第四章】加强我国环境责任保险的法律对策 
【结论/参考文献】我国环境责任保险的不足及完善结论与参考文献 



  摘 要

  改革开放至今,中国社会的发展高速腾飞,在经济迅速增长与人民生活水平稳步提高的同时,日益严重的各类环境问题也随之而来。特别是在近些年来备受世人瞩目的雾霾问题,已经严重危害着人民群众的身体健康,影响着社会的和谐稳定。雾霾的范围不断扩大,席卷了我国20余个省,100多个城市,尤其是东北地区、京津冀地区、长江三角区、株洲三角区以及环长江河谷地区更是成为雾霾的重灾区。随着雾霾问题持续升温,环境污染矛盾不断突显。这使得环境责任保险重新回到人们视野中,给不堪重负的生态环境带来了希望。利用其直接参与事故善后赔偿工作,可以有效提高侵权损害加害人的赔付能力,以保证受害人能够及时获得赔偿救济。环境责任保险还能够保障在环境污染事故发生后各种资金及时到位,用以采取必要措施防止损失的扩大。

  积极探索、发展和推行环境责任保险制度,是保护环境污染受害者的财产利益和人身利益的重要途径,是保障企业生存、发展的有利手段,也是促进企业加强环境保护和污染治理,预防和抑制环境损害的辅助工具。正因为如此,环境保护工作者、保险从业人员和大量的专家学者,纷纷研究和探讨我国环境责任保险制度,为其发展和完善献计献策。

  与中国相比,西方国家开展环境责任保险的时间较早,经验较为丰富,相关的制度也比较为成熟,使之成为这些国家处置环境损害赔偿问题的重要途径。而各发展中国家,虽然开展环境责任保险的时间迟于发达国家,但是近些年来也在积极探索,并取得了较大进步。发达国家与发展中国家对环境责任保险的各种实践情况,都为我国提供了宝贵的经验,值得我国学习借鉴。近些年来环境责任保险在中国的发展之路并不顺畅,令人欣慰的是新修订的《环境保护法》于2015年正式实施,在其中首次明确提出了发展环境责任保险。虽然这只是原则性规定,但是表明了我国坚定不移地推广环境责任保险工作的决心,并开启了探索与创新的新征程。我国在现阶段急需完善环境责任保险法律体系,为试点工作的全面推广提供必要的准备。本文从以下几部分对此进行论述:

  第一部分,叙述本文的引言。本文从我国环境保护的现状入手,具体剖释了文章选题的目的和意义。着重例举了国内外该理论研究现状,提出了文章探究的具体思路及方法。并鲜明地指出了笔者在撰写文章中创新点及其亮点。

  第二部分,介绍了环境责任保险的基础理论。从其内涵和基础理论两个方面进行分析。具体对环境责任保险的概念、特征、类型逐一介绍,其中具体阐述了环境责任保险的社会学基础、经济学基础、伦理学基础和法学基础。通过这些理论基础,能够更加深入地了解环境责任保险在当前社会的理论来源和理论深度。

  第三部分,在梳理我国环境责任保险现状的基础上,深入讨论了其存在问题及原因。

  其中具体详细地陈述了我国的立法现状和试点现状。重点剖释了我国环境责任保险存在哪些问题及其产生的原因。具体包括相关的法律法规不健全、缺乏有效的政府行政监管与执法处罚、司法救济作用有限和公民与污染企业的环境保护意识淡薄四个方面问题。

  第四部分,提出完善我国环境责任保险制度的法律对策。内容主要分为四个方面:

  首先,是在立法方面,对树立我国环境责任保险的立法指导思想、完善法律体系、健全法律制度以及建立相关配套制度提出了建议;其次,在执法方面倡导对政府扶持力度、执法力度和政府监管方面的巩固;再次,是在司法方面重点分析了司法适用和环保法庭的完善;最后,关于如何提高公众的守法意识从企业和公民两方面给出了意见。

  本文在撰写过程中,有些观点和看法还存在不足之处,仅希望通过笔者的探索与研究,能为我国环境保护事业的发展贡献出微薄的力量。

  关键词:环境责任保险;法律实践;法律对策

  Abstract

  Since reform and opening up, the Chinese economy has taken off. Along with the rapideconomic growth and steady improvement of people's living standards in China, variousincreasingly serious environmental problems have been presented. In particularly, the hazeproblem, which has attracted worldwide attention, has seriously endangered people's healthand undermined social harmony and stability. The haze area in China has continued to expandand swept over 100 cities in more than 20 provinces, especially the northeast China, Beijing,Tianjin, Hebei province, the Yangtze River Delta area, the Zhouzhou Triangle Area and theYangtze River Valley area which are severely afflicted. With the increasing aggravation of thehaze problem, environmental pollution contradictions have been gradually highlighted.

  Therefore, the environmental liability insurance re-appears in the visual field of people,bringing hope to the overburdened ecological environment. The direct involvement of theenvironmental liability insurance into the accidental aftercare compensation can effectivelyimprove the compensation ability of tort or damage offenders, thus ensuring that victims canget compensation relief timely. Moreover, the environmental liability insurance can alsoensure that various relief funds are provided timely after environmental pollution accidents,so that immediate measures can be taken to prevent further losses.

  Actively exploring, developing and implementing the environment liability insurancesystem is an important channel to protect property interests and personal interests of victimsof environmental pollution, a favorable tool to guarantee the survival and development ofenterprises, and also a supporting tool to promote enterprises to strengthen their awareness ofenvironmental protection and pollution control, and prevent and reduce environmentaldamage. Because of this, environmentalists, insurance practitioners and lots of experts havebeen devoted to studying and discussing the environmental liability insurance system ofChina and developing measures and putting forward suggestions for developing andimproving the system.

  Compared with China, Western countries made an early start in the implementation ofenvironmental liability insurance, and have accumulated rich experience and developedmature systems in the field of environmental liability insurance. Environmental liabilityinsurance develops into an important tool for Western countries to deal with environmentaldamage compensations. Although developing countries made a late state in theimplementation of environmental liability insurance, they have also gained greatachievements through active explorations in recent years. With various practices in the fieldof environmental liability insurance, developed and developing countries can providevaluable experience and reference to China.

  In recent years, the development road of the environmental liability insurance in Chinahas not been smooth. It is gratifying that the newly revised “Environmental Protection Law”

  was formally implemented in 2015 and clearly stated the development of environmentalliability insurance for the first time. Although only principle regulations are put forward in the“Environmental Protection Law”, the “Environmental Protection Law” shows thedetermination of China to unswervingly promote environmental liability insurance and marksa new start of explorations and innovations for environmental liability insurance. At thepresent stage, it is quite urgent for China to improve the legal system of environmentalliability insurance, to make preparations for the comprehensive promotion of pilot work. Thisthesis falls into following four parts.

  The first part is the introduction part of this thesis. In this paper, on the basis of thepresent situation of environmental protection in China, research objectives and significanceare analyzed in detail. The current situation of environmental liability insurance theories inChina and foreign countries is introduced. On this basis, research ideas and methods of thisthesis are developed. Moreover, innovative aspects and light spots of this thesis are explicitlyfigured out.

  In the third part, on the basis of investigating the status quo of environmental liabilityinsurance in China, the author makes an in-depth study of the current situation aboutlegislation and pilot work for environmental liability insurance in China and analyzesproblems existing in China's environmental liability insurance and the causes. China'senvironmental liability insurance develops following problems: imperfect relevant laws andregulations, the lack of effective government administrative supervision and punishmentenforcement, limited effects of judicial relief and the weakness awareness of environmentalprotection among the public and enterprises.

  In the fourth part, legal countermeasures for improving China's environmental liabilityinsurance system are put forward. Countermeasures are developed from four aspects. Firstly,in terms of law making, China should develop guiding ideas for legislation of theenvironmental liability insurance system, perfect the legal system and establish relevantsupporting systems. Secondly, in terms of law enforcement, China should invest more effortsto provide governmental aids, enforce laws and make supervisions of its environmentalliability insurance system. Thirdly, in terms of justice administration, China should highlightthe judicial application of its environmental liability insurance system and perfectenvironmental courts. Lastly, advices are given for improving the law-abiding awareness ofthe public, in perspectives of enterprises and citizens.

  Despite of some limitations, the author makes explorations and research ofenvironmental liability insurance, in hope of contributing to the development of theenvironmental protection cause in China.

  Key Words: Environmental liability insurance Legal practice Legal countermeasures


  目 录

  摘 要

  ABSTRACT

  1 引言

  1.1 选题背景及研究的目的和意义

  1.1.1 选题来源

  1.1.2 研究目的及意义

  1.2 在该领域国内外的研究现状

  1.2.1 国内研究现状

  1.2.2 国外研究现状

  1.3 文章的具体思路、研究方法和创新点

  1.3.1 文章的具体思路和研究方法

  1.3.2 文章的创新点

  2 环境责任保险的概述

  2.1 环境责任保险的内涵

  2.1.1 环境责任保险的概念

  2.1.2 环境责任保险的基本特征

  2.1.3 环境责任保险的类型

  2.2 环境责任保险的理论基础

  2.2.1 风险责任的社会化原理

  2.2.2 负外部性理论

  2.2.3 环境正义理论

  2.2.4 环境侵权理论

  3 我国环境责任保险的现状及其存在的问题

  3.1 我国环境责任保险的现状

  3.1.1 我国环境责任保险立法现状

  3.1.2 我国环境责任保险试点现状

  3.2 环境责任保险存在的问题及其原因分析

  3.2.1 我国环境责任保险相关法律法规不健全

  3.2.2 我国环境责任保险缺乏有效的政府行政监管与执法

  3.2.3 我国环境责任保险的司法救济作用十分有限

  3.2.4 我国公民和污染企业的环境保护意识淡薄

  4 加强我国环境责任保险的法律对策

  4.1 加强我国环境责任保险的立法对策

  4.1.1 树立我国环境责任保险的立法指导思想

  4.1.2 完善我国现行环境责任保险立法体系

  4.1.3 健全我国环境责任保险法律制度

  4.1.4 完善我国环境责任保险相关配套法律制度

  4.2 加强我国环境责任保险的执法对策

  4.2.1 健全环境责任保险监督管理体系

  4.2.2 加大政府对环境责任保险的扶持力度

  4.2.3 加强环境执法主体执法力度和处罚力度

  4.3 加强我国环境责任保险的司法对策

  4.3.1 完善环境责任保险的司法认定标准

  4.3.2 完善我国环保法庭建设

  4.4 加强我国环境责任保险的守法对策

  4.4.1 提高污染企业参与环境责任保险的意识

  4.4.2 加强社会公众的环保意识和法律意识

  4.4.3 强化社会公民的环境权利意识

  结 论

  参考文献

  后 记

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