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融资租赁合同司法解释探析

时间:2016-05-11 来源:未知 作者:学术堂 本文字数:4619字

    本篇论文目录导航:

【题目】融资租赁合同司法解释探析  
【导言】融资租赁新司法解释问题探究导言 
【第一章】融资租赁司法解释的起草背景  
【第二章】融资租赁法律关系的认定标准 
【第三章】融资租赁合同中善意取得制度适用的限制 
【第四章】融资租赁合同双方解除权的行使 
【结语/参考文献】融资租赁合同纠纷问题法律解释研究结语与参考文献 



  摘要

  融资租赁起源于美国,繁荣于欧美日,但在中国起步较晚,且发展一直处于低潮期。自 2009 年以来,融资租赁行业在我国取得突破性的发展,融资租赁公司如雨后春笋般大量涌现,融资的总金额每年以上千亿的速度增长。融资租赁特殊的运作模式使大量资金流入实体行业,促进实体经济扩大生产,成为仅次于银行信贷的第二大社会资金供应渠道,被誉为“朝阳产业”.

  随着融资租赁在我国的迅猛发展,其引发的行业纠纷层出不穷,加之原有立法对融资租赁业务的规范不够具体、明确,对行业出现的新问题、新运作模式未能及时加以规范,故融资租赁行业急需法律解决实务中的难题。法律是手段,是融资租赁行业发展的重要支撑与保障。2014 年 3 月 1 日《关于审理融资租赁合同纠纷案件适用法律问题的解释》开始施行,该解释集中规定了理论与实务界长期争论的问题,如融资租赁合同的认定与效力问题;合同履行和租赁物公示问题;对出租人的保护问题以及合同的解除问题等。本文将以新司法解释为核心,结合解释中的相关法条,重点论述新司法解释中长期争议的若干问题,从而加深对新司法解释的理解,挖掘条文的精髓所在。本文主要分五个部分展开论述,内容如下:

  第一部分是融资租赁合同司法解释的起草背景。该部分内容是为第二、三、四部分内容作铺垫。内容主要分为两章,第一章是对融资租赁的定义、功能加以明确,对其内涵外延进行梳理;第二章主要通过介绍新司法解释的出台背景以及该行业出现的争议问题,从而更好地理解新司法解释的条文,发现不足并提出合理建议。

  第二部分是探究新司法解释第一条关于融资租赁合同法律关系的认定标准问题。该部分主要是通过对原有立法的梳理,揭示实务中存在的融资租赁法律关系认定的混乱现象。结合新司法解释第一条的规定,论述认定融资租赁法律关系时应当考虑标的物的性质、标的物的价值、租赁合同约定的租金以及合同的权利义务等因素,对于名不符实的“融资租赁合同”根据其实际构成的合同法律关系确定合同的性质。

  第三部分是探究新司法解释第九条对出租人的物权保护,即对善意取得制度的限制。有学者称该部分为租赁物公示内容。该部分的内容是结合法条与实践,对限制善意取得制度适用的四种情况进行分析,以求更好地理解立法本意、正确把握司法解释条文。最后经过分析,对该条的内容提出合理质疑并尝试提出解决方案。

  第四部分是探究新司法解释第十一条对融资租赁合同双方解除权的规定。该部分先对新旧法关于合同解除的规定进行梳理,后对新司法解释第九条进行分析,进一步挖掘立法者之本意,获得法条的精华所在。同时,通过对实务中典型案例的具体分析,总结归纳当事人依据第十一条行使解除权的行使方式、构成要件以及法律后果。

  第五部分是结语。总结概括新司法解释的改善与进步之处,并且指出其有待商榷之处,并期待融资租赁行业未来能够健康、有序、快速发展。

  与《融资租赁法》孕育了若干年仍未出世相比,2014 年新司法解释的实施对融资租赁行业无疑是久旱逢甘霖、雪中送炭之举。《融资租赁司法解释》虽然只有二十六个条文,看似简洁明了,实则博大精深,每个条文均有立法者的价值倾向与国家经济政策之体现,每个条文均是平衡当事人利益的结果。但不得不说的是,其仍然存在需要完善之处。法律不是一蹴而就的,而是经过千锤百炼并且与时俱进的。融资租赁行业已经受到“春雨”的洗礼,未来将会以更加矫健的步伐不断前进,促进国家实体经济以及行业自身的发展。

  [关键词]:融资租赁;合同;司法解释

    Abstract

  Originating in the United States and booming in Europe, the United States andJapan, Financial Leasing started relatively late in China, and develop slowly. Since2009, Financial Leasing had been developing rapidly in our country. A spate offinancial leasing companies have sprung up, financing amount is growing at billionseach year. Making a lot of money into the real industry, and promoting the realeconomy to expand production, financing leasing operation pattern become thesecond to the bank credit social capital supply channels, and has been hailed as a'sunrise industry'.

  With the rapid development of financing lease in our country, the disputes causedby industry emerge in endlessly. The original legislation of financial leasing are notspecific and clear enough and failed to regulate new problems and the new operationmode in the industry, So Financing lease industry needs the new law to solve newproblems in practice. Law is the means, and one of the important support andguarantee to develop financing leasing industry. On March 1, 2014, enacted by thesupreme people's court Explanations on the financing lease contract dispute casesapplicable legal issues come into effect. The file rules focus on the theory andpractice of debate for a long time, such as the cognizance of the financing leasecontract and effectiveness、 the implementation of the contract、publication of thelease item and termination of the contract and so on. This article will take the newjudicial interpretation as the core, combing with the explanations of the related law,and discusses long-term controversial issues in the new judicial interpretation, deepenthe understanding of the new judicial interpretation. This paper is divided into fiveparts, the content is as follows:

  Part I: Draft background and guiding ideology of the judicial interpretation offinancing lease. This part is bedding for the second, three, four parts. Main content isdivided into two parts. The first part is about the definition of financial leasing andtries to make clear to function, make myself and the readers more clear theconnotation of the financial leasing. The second part mainly introduces thebackground of the judicial interpretation and industry issues of financial leasing, tounderstand the financing lease provisions of judicial interpretation preferably.

  Part II: A financial leasing contract legal relationship standards and content in thefirst article of new judicial interpretation about the financing lease. This part mainlyanalysis the original legislation, and reveal chaos phenomenon of cognizance of thefinancing lease contract in the practice. The author discusses the nature of the subjectmatter, the subject matter value, the rent and the rights and obligations under thecontract when indenting the financing lease law relationship.

  Part III: Protection on the property of the lesser and restrictions on good acquiredin good faith in article 9 of the new judicial interpretation. Some scholars called thedepartment as the lease of the public. Combining with the legislation and practice, thispart mainly analysis restrictions to the acquired in good faith system in four cases.

  Finally, by means of the analysis, the author puts forward reasonable question andsolution to this article.

  Part IV: exploration on the financing lease contract termination right on bothsides in article 9 of the new judicial interpretation. In this part: firstly, analysesprovisions of the old and the new method about the termination of the contract; then,analysis article 9 of the judicial interpretation; and finally dig the intention oflawmakers, get the essence law. At the same time, based on analyzing the practice andaccording to article 11, the author summarized the way of lifting right, constitutiverequirements and legal consequence.

  Part V: Conclusion. This article summarized advantages of the new judicialinterpretation, and points out aspects what need to be improved, and wish thatfinancial leasing industry have a healthy and orderly development in the future.

  Compared with the The act of financing lease what have been drafting for manyyears, but not enacted, Explanations on the financing lease contract dispute casesapplicable legal issuesis an action like long drought meet showers. Although only 26,“Explanation” seemingly simple, but it is extensive and profound. Each section haslawmakers' value tendency and the embodiment of national economic policy. Eachsection is to balance the interests of the parties. There are some aspects need toimprove in “Explanation” that can't be avoid. The laws is not happen overnight, butfilleting and keep pace with the time. Financing lease industry will have a rapiddevelopment, and play a more important role on the development of national economyin the future.

  Keywords: Financial Leasing;contract;judicial interpretation

 

  目 录

  导 言

  第一章 融资租赁司法解释的起草背景

  第一节 融资租赁的定义和功能

  一、融资租赁的定义

  二、融资租赁的功能

  第二节 融资租赁在我国的发展及存在的法律问题

  一、融资租赁在我国的发展

  二、融资租赁在发展过程中存在的法律问题

  第二章 融资租赁法律关系的认定标准

  第一节 原有立法的梳理与实务存在的问题

  一、原有立法的梳理

  二、实务中存在的问题

  第二节 学者争论与《合同法》对融资租赁合同的定性

  一、学者争论

  二、《合同法》对融资租赁合同的定性

  第三节 新司法解释对融资租赁法律关系的认定

  一、标的物的性质与融资租赁法律关系的认定

  二、标的物的价值与融资租赁法律关系的认定

  三、租金与融资租赁法律关系的认定

  四、当事人的合同权利及义务与融资租赁法律关系的认定

  第三章 融资租赁合同中善意取得制度适用的限制

  第一节 原有立法的梳理与实务存在的问题

  一、原有立法梳理

  二、实务存在的问题

  第二节 善意取得构成要件与善意取得制度适用的限制

  一、善意取得的构成要件

  二、善意取得制度适用的限制

  第三节 新司法解释存在的问题及解决途径

  一、实务中“善意”的证明责任及时间节点问题

  二、出租人抵押权的对抗效力问题

  三、标识“消失”与第三人“善意”

  第四章 融资租赁合同双方解除权的行使

  第一节 原有立法梳理与新司法解释对双方解除权的规定

  一、原有立法梳理

  二、新司法解释对双方解除权的规定

  第二节 双方解除权行使的条件及后果

  一、实务中关于行使解除权的争议

  二、案例与条文相结合分析双方解除权

  结 语

  参考文献

  后 记

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