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中国生态农业发展困境研析

时间:2016-11-02 来源:学术堂 所属分类: 农业经济学论文 本文字数:5334字
  摘 要
  

  在经济全球化的大背景下,能源短缺等问题被持续关注,由此带来的不仅仅是对世界工业、服务业的影响,也深刻影响着世界农业的战略发展方向。生态农业在我国发展过程中,其应用过程中有效吸收了传统农业的精华,在可持续农业发展理念指导下,借鉴了现代农业优秀的生产经营方式,在保障环境效益保护和改善的前提下,综合运用生态工程设计技术和理念,不断优化农业产业结构,以实现农业经济发展,农村社会与自然生态的和谐发展。
  
  我国生态农业的发展继承了中国传统农业文化的发展精髓,附之以长期的实践经验,基本摸索出了一条符合我国农业发展道路的新模式。但是,不可否认,长期以来,我国生态农业的发展进步缓慢,未能充分调动起一切可利用的优势资源。长期以来,我国生态农业建设采取试点示范的发展模式,由村、乡、镇、县,重点发展县域生态农业建设,以期利用县域生态农业经济效益的模范效应推动生态农业建设的发展。在生态农业建设过程中,一大批理论创新和技术革新应用到生态农业建设中来,长期实践的积累给了我们继续深入开展、推广生态农业建设的基础。温家宝总理曾指出:21 世纪是我国实现农业现代化的关键历史阶段,现代化的农业应该是高效的农业。在我国经济持续高速增长的今天,研究生态农业及其发展对我国现代化农业发展的重大意义不言而喻。我国生态农业的持续发展已经形成了独具中国特色的创新型生态农业理论、技术体系和总体发展思路。在立足于保护生态环境和生产条件下,尽可能的运用现代农业生产技术实现生态农业的高速度、高效益发展,推动生态农业产业化经营,实现现代农业的社会效益、经济效益和自然效益的统一。
  
  本文从生态农业的科学内涵出发,梳理了生态农业的理论基础,在借鉴国内外生态农业发展建设现状的基础上,分析了我国生态农业发展的特点、意义。尽管在生态农业建设方面取得了一些实践经验,初步形成了具有当地区域特色的典型生态农业模式,实现了经济效益、社会效益和环境效益的全面提升,在帮助农民增收的同时对可持续农业的发展做出了贡献,但是问题还是比较突出的。我国生态农业起步较晚,未能形成完备生态农业制度化建设,生态效益相对国外发达国家较低,能源利用率不高,产业化水平较低,农业体系建设也未成为完备的体系。这主要受到外部资源环境制约,生态农业组织建设缺位,未能形成相应的管理体制和制度建设。基于此,本文借鉴了国外发达国家的先进理念和技术手段,针对我国生态农业发展建设过程中存在的问题提出针对性的对策和建议。不断加强生态农业宣传工作,提高农民科技素质水平;调整产业结构,优化产业升级;加大对生态农业的推广力度,形成示范类工程;加大科技和资金的投入力度;建立完善的保障体系。生态农业发展建设不是一朝一夕之功,就我国来说,国土面积广大,各地自然资源和环境优劣不同,发展生态农业必须坚持因地制宜,在有效开发利用和保护农业资源的基础上,不断创新思路,发展科技发展新手段,为更好地促进我国生态农业的发展,提高农村经济发展水平,提高我国农民生活水平,进而促进我国国民经济更好更快发展服务。
  
  关键词:生态农业 发展现状 研究对策
  
  Abstract
  
  Under the background of economic globalization, energy shortages and other issuesacquire sustained attentions. They not only impact on the industrial industries and serviceindustries of the world, but also have profound effects on the strategic direction of worldagriculture. In the last three decades, the application process of it absorbed the essence oftraditional agriculture effectively. And it drew on the excellent production and management ofmodern agriculture under the guidance of the concept of sustainable agricultural development.
  
  Besides, in order to achieve the harmonious development of economic development,agriculture, rural society and natural ecology, ecological agriculture integrated used ecologicalengineering design technologies and concepts, and constantly optimize the industrial structureof agriculture under the premise of the environmental benefits of protecting and improving.
  
  The development of our ecological agriculture inherited the essence of traditionalChinese agriculture culture. With the long-term experience, it basically worked out a newmodel of agricultural development path in line with China. However, it is undeniable, for along time, the development of ecological agriculture in our progress is slow; it failed to fullymobilize all available resources advantage. For a long time, Chinese construction ofecological agriculture has taken the development pattern of pilot and demonstration. Itfocuses on developing county construction of ecological agriculture by the village, townshipand county. So that it can use model effects of county agricultural ecological and economicbenefits to promote the development of ecological agricultural construction. In the process ofbuilding ecological agriculture, a large number of theoretical innovations and technologicalinnovations are applied to the construction of ecological agriculture. Long-standing practicalaccumulation gave us the base of continuing to carry out and promote the construction ofecological agriculture. Premier Wen Jiabao has pointed it out that the 21st century is the keyhistorical period of achieving agricultural modernization, the modern agriculture should behighly efficient agricultural. It is obvious that researching ecological agriculture and itsdevelopment have great significance for Chinese modern agricultural development in ourcountry's sustained rapid economic increasing today. The continued development of ourecological agriculture has formed a unique innovative ecological agriculture theory,technology system and ideas of overall development with Chinese characteristics. Based onthe protection of the ecological environment and production conditions, we should usemodern agricultural production techniques to achieve high speed and efficiency developmentof ecological agriculture as possibly as we can. In addition, in order to constantly promoteecological agricultural industrialization, we also should take measures to change the originalsimple technical inputs into knowledge, information, intelligence and other knowledge-basedtechnology investment, achieving a unity of social, economic and natural benefits of modernagriculture.
  
  This article based on renewable connotation of ecological agriculture, combing thetheoretical basis of ecological agriculture. As meanwhile, it analysis characteristics andmeaning of ecological agricultural development based on present situation of the developmentand construction of ecological agriculture at home and abroad.Although we have achieved bigstep forward in the construction of ecological agriculture, preliminarily formed ecologicalagriculture that is with regional characteristics, achieved a comprehensive upgrading ofeconomic, social and environmental benefits and made some contributions to the developmentof sustainable agriculture while helping farmers to earn more money, there are also manyproblems which are very serious. Chinese ecological agriculture started late than others. Andit failed to form a complete institutionalization of ecological agriculture. Compared with otherdeveloped countries, its ecological benefits are relatively lower , energy efficiency is not high,the level of industrialization is much lower and agricultural system construction has notbecome a complete system、 This is mainly affected by external resources and environmentalconstraints, ecological agriculture organization building vacancy and failed to form acorresponding management system and Institutional construction. For this reason, thispassage draws on the advanced concepts and techniques of developed countries, puttingforward corresponding countermeasures and suggestions for problems of the development ofecological agriculture in the process. Firstly, strengthening environmental advocacy work inagriculture continuously so that farmer's science and technology qualities can be improved;secondly, adjusting the industrial structure and optimizing the industrial upgrading; thirdly,increasing efforts to promote ecological agriculture so that it can form the Normal project;fourthly, increasing spending on science and technology and capital; last but not least,establishing and improving the security system. All in all, the development and constructionof ecological agriculture can not be finished in a short span of time. As for China, our landarea is very large; there exist plenty of differences of natural resource and environmentbetween any piece lands of our country. This requires us that we should insist the principle oflocal conditions when we develop ecological agriculture. What's more, we also shouldinnovate constantly and develop new means of technological development on the basis of theeffective exploitation and protection of agricultural resources. Only by doing these can wepromote the development of ecological agriculture, improve the level of economicdevelopment in rural areas and improve the living standards of farmers, thus contributing tothe national economy better and faster development.
  
  Key Words:Ecological agriculture Current situation of the development Research oncountermeasures


  目 录
  
  中文摘要
  
  英文摘要
  
  引 言
  
  (一) 选题背景及意义
  
  (二) 国内外研究现状
  
  (三) 研究方法
  
  (四) 论文重点、难点与创新之处
  
  一、 生态农业的相关理论
  
  (一) 生态农业的科学内涵
  
  (二) 生态农业的特征
  
  1. 生态农业是可持续发展农业
  
  2. 生态农业是一个开放的农业系统
  
  3. 生态农业是发挥系统整体性的农业
  
  4. 生态农业是以产业化经营为理念的高效农业
  
  5. 生态农业是具有明显区域特色的农业
  
  6. 生态农业是促进经济效益、社会效益和环境效益协调发展的农业
  
  (三) 生态农业的发展模式
  
  1. 城镇近郊为核心向都市城市圈辐射的生态农业发展模式
  
  2. 农产品主产区规模化生态农业发展模式
  
  3. 生产条件较差的农业区综合效益优化生态农业发展模式
  
  (四) 我国发展生态农业的必然性
  
  1. 化解农业生产面临的严重生态危机的需要
  
  2. 增加农民收入、解决“三农”问题的有效途径
  
  3. 满足人们对优质农产品需求的重要保障
  
  4. 应对国际农产品激烈竞争局势的客观要求
  
  二、 我国生态农业的发展现状
  
  (一) 我国生态农业发展取得的成就
  
  1. 生态农业建设已具区域特色和典型生态农业模式
  
  2. 生态农业建设的经济、社会和环境效益有了综合提升
  
  3. 生态农业建设对农业的可持续发展发挥积极作用
  
  4. 生态农业为增加农民收入发挥重要作用
  
  (二) 我国生态农业发展存在的问题
  
  1. 农业发展生态效益低
  
  2. 生态农业产业化水平低
  
  3. 生态农业发展制度不完善
  
  4. 生态农业体系不完善
  
  三、 制约我国生态农业发展的因素
  
  (一) 农民主体生态意识不强
  
  (二) 资源环境的外在制约
  
  (三) 生态农业技术研究与推广体系不健全
  
  (四) 政策支持和组织力度不够
  
  (五) 生态农业的管理体制制约
  
  四、 美国、德国生态农业的发展及对我国的启示
  
  (一) 美国的生态农业发展
  
  (二) 德国的生态农业发展
  
  (三) 对我国的启示
  
  五、 我国生态农业发展的对策建议
  
  (一) 加强生态农业宣传工作,提高农民的科技素质
  
  (二) 实现农村生态农业产业化发展
  
  1. 调整和优化生态农业产业结构
  
  2. 因地制宜地选择生态农业发展模式
  
  3. 大力推进农村生态农业产业化经营
  
  (三) 加大生态农业推广力度
  
  1. 加强不同类型的生态农业试点工作
  
  2. 加强生态农业示范县、市工程建设
  
  (四) 加大生态农业科技投入力度
  
  1. 大力发展生态农业技术创新体系
  
  2. 加强科技人才培养
  
  3. 加速农业高技术研发和成果转化
  
  (五) 建设和完善生态农业保障体系
  
  1. 完善生态农业发展的相关政策
  
  2. 加强立法,完善生态农业发展的法律体系
  
  3. 加强对生态农业的投资保障
  
  结论
  
  参考文献
  
  后记
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