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吉林省秸秆综合利用产业化发展探究

时间:2016-12-14 来源:未知 作者:陈赛楠 本文字数:3096字
  摘 要
  
  本论文以吉林省中部粮食主产区为研究区域,通过查阅文献、问卷调查、实地调研、召开企业座谈会及案例分析等研究途径,重点论述了吉林省玉米秸秆综合利用产业现状及存在问题,构建了吉林省秸秆综合利用产业化的主要模式,分析了吉林省秸秆综合利用产业化典型案例的实施效果,最后提出了促进秸秆综合利用产业发展的政策与建议。取得的主要研究结果概要如下:
  
  1.吉林省秸秆资源利用潜力大,2013 年吉林省实际可收集利用的秸秆资源总量约3950 万吨,秸秆资源密度达到 10.9 吨/公顷,为全国最高;2013 年秸秆利用率为 75.2%,低于全国平均水平 1.9 个百分点,利用量约 2970 万吨。在秸秆综合利用产业发展方面,通过 62 户填报调查问卷的企业分析,秸秆成型燃料企业占 57.1%;秸秆直燃发电企业占17.5%;秸秆有机肥企业占 7.9%;秸秆饲料企业占 6.3%;秸秆板材、秸秆沼气企业分别占3.2%;秸秆环保融雪剂、秸秆食用菌基料、秸秆造纸企业分别占 1.6%.吉林省秸秆综合利用尚未形成大规模产业化发展的格局,存在的问题主要有:产业规模小、利用水平低、科技支撑不足、收储运体系不完善、缺少政策资金支持。
  
  2.按照循环利用、因地制宜、突出重点、统筹城乡的原则,设计提出了吉林省玉米秸秆综合利用产业农业化、原料化、能源化三种主要发展模式,确定了应重点发展秸秆-造纸-肥料/饲料模式、秸秆-化工产品-肥料模式、秸秆-生物天然气-肥料模式,适当补充秸秆-成型燃料等其它模式。
  
  3. 通过对吉林省近期实施的 6 个秸秆综合利用产业化典型案例(项目)进行了对比分析,6 个项目各有优长,突出表现在秸秆-造纸-肥料/饲料模式秸秆利用量大、产业链长、经济效益和社会效益较好,但技术难度高,投资和环境影响较大,不利于推广;而秸秆-成型燃料模式经济效益和社会效益一般,但投资小、技术简单、环境影响小,易于推广。
  
  4.促进吉林省秸秆综合利用产业发展的政策建议主要有:加强监督管理、制定扶持政策、规范行业发展、完善技术保障、建设收储运体系、加快项目建设、做好宣传推广等七个方面。
  
  关键词:秸秆,综合利用,产业模式,吉林省


  Abstract
  
  Jilin is a main agricultural province in China, in which the crops straw especially corn1and the comprehensive utilization is bad developed. Straw burned and discarded in field is acommon situation, which caused serious waste of the resource and air pollution. So the furtherstudy on industrial development pattern of straw comprehensive utilization, as well as thedetermination of key direction and the progress of Industry, can bear long-term strategicsignificance and enormous practical effect in decreasing the environmental pollution, increasingthe economic benefit and cultivating new points of economic growth.
  
  Based on the research approach of the consulting document, questionnaire survey, spotinvestigation, enterprises forum and case analysis, in main grain production area of central Jilin,the thesis mainly discussed the straw comprehensive utilization industry and major problems,then constructed the main models of straw comprehensive utilization industrialization in Jilinprovince, meanwhile analyzed the implementation effects in six typical cases, finally proposedthe policies and suggestions to promote the development of the straw comprehensive utilizationindustry. The result outlines are followed:
  
  1. The use of straw resources has great potential in Jilin province, the total quantity about3950 million tons and 10.9 ton per hectare by 2013, which had the highest level of China. Thestraw utilization ratio and amount was 75.2% and 2970 million tons respectively, but the ratiowas lower than the national average by 1.9 percentage points. Through the analysis on 62enterprises, the straw was utilized for bar-formed fuel(57.1%),combustion generation(17.5%),organic fertilizer(7.9%), feed(6.3%), plate(3.2%), biogas(3.2%), snow-melting agent ofenvironmental protection type(1.6%), edible fungi base material(1.6%) and papermaking(1.6%)mainly. The industry development of straw comprehensive utilization still existted someproblems, not formed the pattern of large industrialization and long-term mechanism of socialconsensus yet .
  
  2. The paper designed the agriculturalization,raw change and energy regeneration modelsfor corn straw comprehensive utilization industry, according to the principles of recycling, localconditions, highlighting the emphasis and overall urban and rural. And we determined thestraw-papermaking-fertilizer/feed model, straw-chemical products-fertilizer model andstraw-biological gas-fertilizer model mainly, meanwhile, the straw-formed fuel modelshould be adequate supplemented.
  
  3.Six typical cases models have each excellences, among which thestraw-papermaking-fertilizer/feed model and the straw-formed fuel model are models withgreat prospect. We discuss the concrete manifestation from some aspects listed below: thestraw-papermaking-fertilizer/feed model has good economic and social benefit, large strawutilization, long industry chain, but large investment, high technology, big environmental impactand extension difficult; while the straw-formed fuel model are relative to that.
  
  4. At last, the paper put forward some countermeasures. We should strengthen thesupervision and management. The formulation of support policy should be clarified. Then weshould standardize the development in this industry. Technology support should be perfected todevelop and extend applicable technique and equipment. The system of straw storage andtransportation should be also established as soon as possible. At the same time, we shoulddevelope some project constructions and increase the broadcasting and extension.
  
  Key word: Straw, Comprehensive Utilization, Industry Model, Jilin Province


  目 录
  
  第一章 绪论
  
  1.1 研究的背景及意义
  
  1.2 国内外秸秆综合利用产业发展现状
  
  1.3 研究内容
  
  1.4 技术路线
  
  1.5 拟解决的关键问题
  
  1.6 创新点
  
  第二章 吉林省秸秆综合利用产业现状及存在的问题
  
  2.1 吉林省秸秆资源现状
  
  2.2 吉林省秸秆综合利用及产业发展现状
  
  2.3 吉林省支持秸秆综合利用产业发展的政策措施
  
  2.4 吉林省秸秆利用产业发展中存在的问题
  
  第三章 吉林省秸秆综合利用产业发展模式设计
  
  3.1 “十三五”吉林省秸秆综合利用产业发展趋势分析
  
  3.2 循环经济理论下秸秆综合利用产业发展模式
  
  3.3 吉林省秸秆综合利用产业发展模式遵循的原则
  
  3.4 吉林省秸秆综合利用产业发展模式
  
  第四章 吉林省秸秆综合利用产业化典型案例分析
  
  4.1 典型案例实施情况
  
  4.2 典型案例效益对比分析
  
  第五章 吉林省秸秆综合利用产业发展的政策建议
  
  5.1 加强监督管理
  
  5.2 制定扶持政策
  
  5.3 规范行业发展
  
  5.4 完善技术保障
  
  5.5 建立收储运体系
  
  5.6 加快项目建设
  
  5.7 做好宣传推广
  
  第六章 结论及展望
  
  6.1 结论
  
  6.2 展望
  
  参考文献
  
  致 谢
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