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中国食品安全犯罪入刑问题研究

时间:2016-07-07 来源:未知 作者:学术堂 本文字数:3565字

    本篇论文目录导航:

【题目】中国食品安全犯罪入刑问题研究 
【引言  第一章】食品安全犯罪概要 
【第二章】我国食品安全违法犯罪的现状及成因 
【第三章】食品安全犯罪刑法规制存在的问题与不足 
【第四章】我国食品安全犯罪刑法规制的完善建议 
【结语/参考文献】中国食品安全刑法制度构建研究结语与参考文献 



  摘 要

  近几年来,“三聚氰胺”、“红心鸭蛋”、“毒馒头”、“瘦肉精”、“福喜肉”等频发的食品安全事故暴露出的严重的食品安全隐患,已经引发了社会公众、国内外媒体、政府的高度关注。食品安全事关中国和谐稳定的社会建设和大国形象的树立,安全、健康的食品供应已成为衡量公民生活质量的重要标志,反映着社会管理和国家法律规则构建的水平和成效。在中国构建和谐社会的背景下,这一严重的社会问题也在试炼着中国的法治建设。令人堪忧的食品安全现状倒逼中国食品安全监管体系的进步与完善。2009年《食品安全法》应运而生(2015 年 4 月 24 号修订),之后《餐饮服务食品安全监督管理办法》等部门规章等相继出台,2011 年《刑法修正案(八)》对刑法有关食品安全犯罪的有关内容也做出相应修改,以更好的实现刑法对食品安全犯罪的规制需要,以适应保障和推进民生的需要。然而,刑事司法实践与依然高发的食品安全犯罪的碰撞表明,刑法在规制食品安全犯罪的内容、在与《食品安全法》的衔接、在与社会现实需要的配合等方面还有待进一步完善。

  本文主体分为四部分:

  第一部分是食品安全概述。“食品”影响着我们对食品安全犯罪的认识,因此,此部分首先介绍了“食品”的概念,之后通过总结分析,阐释食品安全的几层含义。本文的语境下食品安全主要是指食品的卫生、无毒害和符合营养需要;接着介绍广义和狭义的食品安全犯罪;然后概括了现行刑法规制食品安全犯罪的主要罪名,包括食品安全犯罪的本罪和相关犯罪;最后从应对风险社会的必要性、刑法的功利性和工具性、刑法的严厉性角度分析刑法规制食品安全犯罪的合理性。

  第二部分,首先根据有关媒体报道和司法案例总结了我国食品安全领域违法犯罪的特点:行为主体更加复杂、单位犯罪增多;违法行为更加“与时俱进”,专业性、组织性强;违法后果方面,由于商业的发达,行为涉及面广,危害后果严重。最后从市场经济的自有缺陷造成市场主体缺乏诚信,行政监管因主客观原因不到位,法制不健全、违法成本低等因素分析产生此现状的原因。

  第三部分,首先从食品安全犯罪的刑法体系归属的不科学、调整范围的不全面及刑罚在资格刑上的缺失和罚金刑欠缺针对性等方面作了具体分析,指出刑法规制的不足之处,并为后文的探讨及建议作了铺垫。

  第四部分,通过理论分析,结合食品安全刑法规制的实践需要,适应加大对生命健康权保护的必然趋势,提出回应第三部分不足之处的具体建议。

  关键词:食品安全犯罪,刑法规制的不足,刑法规制的完善

  ABSTRACT

  In recent years, frequent food safety accidents, such as “melamine”, “red duck's egg”, “poisonsteamed buns”, “clenbuterol” and “fuk meat” , exposed serious food security risks and caused great concernof the public, domestic and foreign media, government. Food security is the foundation of the public'ssurvival and development, and it relates to every citizen's health and safety, social stability and harmony,even the image of China as a strong country. Food safety has become an important symbol to measure thelife quality of the citizens, reflecting the level and effectiveness of the national rules and laws constructionand social management. Under the background of harmonious society construction, food safety also testsChinese law system construction. The worrying food safety status also puts off the progress andimprovement of Chinese food safety supervision system. In 2009, the new “Food Safety Law” (amended onApril 24, 2015)came in to force at the right moment. Then Food Safety Supervision and ManagementMeasures of Food and Beverage Service“ and other regulations came into force one by one. In 2011,”Criminal Law Amendment (Eight)“was revised related to the food safety crime, to put the criminal lawinto better use and promote people's livelihood. However, the collision of increasing food safety crime andcriminal judicial practice shows that it needs to be further improved in the content of food safety controland the cohesion with ”food safety law“ and cooperation with society and other aspects.

  This paper is divided into four parts:

  The first part is an overview of food safety. ”Food“ affects our understanding of food safety crime,therefore, this part introduces the concept of ”food“ , and gives several layers meaning of food safetythrough summary and analysis. In this paper, food security mainly refers to the food sanitation,non-poisonousness and nutrition; then I introduces the food safety crimes in broad sense and narrow sense;then I summarized the main offence under the current criminal law system , including primary crime andrelated crimes; finally I make the reasonableness analysis of criminal regulation to food safety crime fromthe angle of necessity to deal with the risky society, the utilitarianism and instrumentalism of criminal lawand severity of criminal law.

  The second part, I summarizes the characteristics of Chinese food safety crime according to therelevant media reports and judicial cases at first: the subject is more complex, the unit crime is increasing;illegal behavior is becoming more ”advanced with the times“, stronger in profession and organization; theconsequences are becoming worse due to the commercial development and extensive involvement. Finally,I analyzed some reasons from the lack of integrity of the market, non-effectiveness of administrativesupervision from subjective and objective reasons, the imperfect legal system and low criminal cost, whichare all caused by the innate defects of market economy.

  The third part, I make a specific analysis and point some shortages of our criminal law from thenon-scientific food safety criminal law system, the non-comprehensive of adjustment range and the lack ofpunishment in the qualifications punishment and fine punishment, which lays firm groundwork for the laterdiscussion and suggestions.

  The fourth part, I put forward some specific proposals in response to the inadequacies listed in thethird part, combining with the need of food safety regulation and criminal law practice and adapting to theinevitable trend of increasing protection to the rights of life and health through theoretical analysis.

  KEY WORDS: food safety crime, the lake of regulation , the perfection of regulation


    目 录

  摘 要

  ABSTRACT

  目 录

  引 言

  一、食品安全犯罪概要

  (一)食品安全犯罪概要

  1.食品的含义

  2.食品安全的含义

  3.食品安全犯罪的含义

  (二)现行刑法对食品安全犯罪的规定

  1.生产、销售不符合安全标准的食品罪

  2.生产、销售有毒、有害食品罪

  3.食品安全监管犯罪

  4.其他食品安全相关犯罪

  (三)食品安全刑法规制的合理性

  1.应对食品安全风险的必然要求

  2.刑法的功利性和工具性的使命要求

  3.刑法强制力严厉性的必然结果

  二、我国食品安全犯罪的现状及成因

  (一)我国食品安全犯罪的现状

  1.犯罪主体复杂化,单位违法犯罪现象增多

  2.犯罪行为技术化、专业化、组织化趋势明显

  3.犯罪涉及面广,危害后果严重

  (二)我国食品安全犯罪的成因

  1.市场经济不健全,恶性竞争,诚信缺失

  2.我国食品安全行政监管不力

  3 违法成本低,法律的威慑作用难以发挥

  三、我国食品安全犯罪刑法规制存在的问题与不足

  (一)食品安全犯罪的体系归属不够科学

  (二)现有食品安全罪名规制的范围过窄

  1.主观要件拘泥于故意

  2.行为要件方面有疏漏

  (三)食品安全犯罪刑罚设置不合理

  1.罚金刑设置不合理

  2.资格刑缺失

  四、我国食品安全犯罪刑法规制的完善建议

  (一)对食品安全犯罪科学分类

  (二)适当扩大食品安全罪名的调整范围

  1.增设食品安全过失犯罪

  2.适当扩展行为表现形式

  (三)科学设置刑罚

  1.罚金刑的完善

  2.资格刑的设置

  结 语

  参考文献

  致 谢

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