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中国法官身份保障制度缺陷探析

时间:2017-07-07 来源:学术堂 所属分类: 法学硕士论文 本文字数:5160字
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【题目】 中国法官身份保障制度缺陷探析
【绪论】国内法官身份保障体制的改进研究绪论
【第一章】法官身份保障的基础理论
【第二章】国外法官身份保障的考察
【第三章】我国法官身份保障现状及存在的问题
【第四章】我国法官身份保障制度的完善建议
【结语/参考文献】如何完善中国法官身份保障规制结语与参考文献

       摘 要  十八届三中全会以来,中央决定深化司法改革,法官职业保障成为最高院制定改革方案的重要议题,纳入到“四五改革纲要”中。法官身份保障是法官职业保障制度的中的一环,是法官职业化建设推进的基础,也是中国特色社会主义法官制度的重要组成部分。完善法官身份保障制度,不仅是法律人士的呼声,更是法官们的殷切期盼。法官身份保障制度的建设对于推进审判独立,提升法官职业荣誉感具有重要的作用。因此,在推进以审判为中心的诉讼制度改革过程中加快法院队伍精英化进程,就必须以完善法官身份保障为前提。必须做好法官身份保障制度的顶层设计和制度落实。本文分四部分对论题进行阐述:
  
  第一部分阐述了法官身份保障制度的基础理论,首先是概念的界定,包括法官身份界定,法官身份保障的界定以及法官身份保障制度的界定。然后是对法官身份保障制度基础理论的阐述,包括法官身份保障的特征;法官身份保障的必要性分析;法官身份保障的可行性分析;与法官身份保障制度相近似的制度辨析。
  
  第二部分是对法官身份保障的国外考察,首先,分析与法官身份保障有关的国际规范;其次,从比较法的角度对法官身份保障制度概况进行研究,选取英美法系和大陆法系中比较有代表性的五个国家英、美、德、法、日五国进行比较分析。从法官任期制度、法官考核制度、法官惩戒制度等三个方面比较分析两大法系法官身份保障制度的异同点,试图能够对我国法官身份保障制度完善有所借鉴。
  
  第三部分主要分析了国内法官身份保障制度现状,并发现问题。从立法现状和司法实践现状两个层面分析。对法官任期制度;法官考核制度;法官惩戒制度等三个方面的不足逐一梳理。
  
  第四部分提出解决对策,针对第三部分中法官任期制度、法官考核制度、法官惩戒制度中分别存在的问题提出可行的解决建议。
  
  关键词  法官身份保障 任期 考核 惩戒
  
  Abstract:  Since the Communist Party of China third-eighth plenarymeeting,the Central Committee decided to promote the judicialreform further,Judges job security has become an importanttopic of judges of the Supreme People develop reform programs,into the Fourth Five-Year Reform Outline courts.Judgesidentity security is part of the judges' professional securitysystem.Is the basis for the construction of judges'
professional advancement,but also an important part ofsocialism with Chinese characteristics judge System.Judgeimprove identity security system is not only the voice of thelegal profession,but also judges ardent desire.Buildingsecurity system as judge for the trial to promote theindependence of judges to enhance professional pride has animportant role.Therefore,accelerating the elite teams in thereform process of the court litigation system center during thetrial,it is necessary to improve the protection of the identityof the judge as a precondition.Top-level design and the systemmust be prepared to judge the identity of safeguardsimplementation.The article is divided into four partselaborate on the topic:
  
  The first part describes the theoretical basis of thesafeguards system as judge.The first is the definition of theconcept;Including the definition of the status of judges anddefined as judges identity security,defined as judge securitysystem.Then elaborated the basic theory on judge identitysecurity system,including the features of judges identityprotection;Necessity analysis of judges identity protection;Feasibility analysis of judges identity protection;Discriminate with other similar regimes.
  
  The second part is to study abroad on judge identitysecurity system. Firstly,analysis some related internationalnorms governing judges identity security system.Second,fromthe perspective of comparative law studies on judge identitysecurity system overview,select the common law and civil lawin five representative countries,Britain,United States,Germany,France and Japan to comparative analysis.Form fouraspects on judge tenure system,judge evaluation system,judgesdisciplinary system.Comparative and analysis the similaritiesand differences between two legal systems as judge identitysecurity system,hoping to find Some reference for China withjudge identity security system.
  
  The third part analyzes the domestic situation,andidentify problems on judge identity security system. From theanalysis of current legislation and judicial practice statusof two levels.Carding shortcomings in four areas with judgetenure system,judge evaluation system,judges disciplinarysystem.The fourth part is against on the third part about judgetenure system,judge evaluation system,judges disciplinarysystem, respectively to put forward some viable proposition.
  
  Keywords: Judges identity security;tenure;discipline;evaluation.
  
  目录

一、研究背景............................................................................................4
二、研究意义............................................................................................5
三、研究现状............................................................................................5
四、研究方法............................................................................................9
(一)逻辑思辨法................................................................................9
(二)文献研究法..............................................................................10
第一章 法官身份保障的基础理论........................................................11
一、法官身份保障制度的概述.........................................................11
(一)“法官身份”的界定..............................................................11
(二)法官身份保障的界定..............................................................11
(三)法官身份保障制度的界定......................................................12
(四)法官身份保障的内容..............................................................12
二、法官身份保障制度特征..............................................................13
(一)保障对象的特定性..................................................................13
(二)职务变动事由法定性..............................................................13
(三)职务变动程序法定性..............................................................14
三、法官身份保障的必要性分析....................................................14
(一)法官身份保障是法官职业化建设的前提..............................14
(二)法官身份保障是司法公正的现实需要..................................15
(三)法官身份保障有助于提高司法权威......................................15
四、法官身份保障的可行性分析....................................................16
(一)观念层面..................................................................................16
(二)制度层面..................................................................................17
(三)技术层面..................................................................................18
五、法官身份保障制度与相近制度辨析......................................18
(一)法官身份保障与法官职业保障..............................................18
(二)法官身份保障与公务员身份保障..........................................19
第二章 国外法官身份保障的考察........................................................20
一、法官身份保障相关的国际规范................................................20
(一)法官任期相关规范..................................................................20
(二)法官考核相关规范..................................................................21
(三)法官惩戒相关规范..................................................................21
二、两大法系法官身份保障概况....................................................22
(一)法官任期制度概况..................................................................22
(二)法官考核制度概况..................................................................25
(三)法官惩戒制度概况..................................................................27
第三章 我国法官身份保障现状及存在的问题................................30
一、我国法官身份保障制度现状....................................................30
(一)法律规范现状..........................................................................30
(二)制度执行现状..........................................................................32
(三)改革中政策调整情况..............................................................33
二、法官身份保障制度存在的问题................................................34
(一)法官任职期限短......................................................................34
(二)法官职务不稳定......................................................................35
(三)法官考核随意化......................................................................37
(四)法官惩戒行政化......................................................................39
第四章 我国法官身份保障制度的完善建议.....................................42
一、 法官任期设置科学化................................................................42
(一)建立区别化的法官任期制......................................................42
(二)构建中、高院法官延迟退休制..............................................43
(三)构建基层法院优秀退休法官返聘制......................................45
二、法官职务稳定化............................................................................45
(一)法官免职程序法定化..............................................................45
(二)法官职务变更自愿..................................................................46
二、法官考核科学化............................................................................47
(一)考核标准客观化......................................................................47
(二)考核方式规范化......................................................................48
(三)改革考核“不称职”结果使用..............................................49
三、法官惩戒去行政化.......................................................................49
(一)法官惩戒事由法定化..............................................................49
(二)设置法官惩戒委员会..............................................................50
(三)法官惩戒程序去行政化..........................................................51
结 语................................................................................................................52
参考文献...........................................................................................................53
致 谢................................................................................................................59
个人简介...........................................................................................................60

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