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公共工程代建制的行政法研究 摘要

时间:2014-04-14 来源:未知 作者:学术堂 本文字数:5882字
  摘要
  公共工程代建制是我国投资体制改革的一项重要制度创新。作为公私合作的一种新尝试,公共工程代建制改变了政府与市场在公共产品供给中的角色和作用,既给行政法学提出了新课题,更因实践中遇到的困惑和挑战亟待行政法给予回应与支持。本文试图从行政法视角研究这类新的公私合作方式,梳理出公共工程代建制在实践中面临的行政法问题,通过构建理论分析的框架,考察实际运行的状况,提出解决这些问题的路径以及法治化方案,为改革实践提供公法上的指引。
  本论文共分五部分。
  导论,主要是介绍公共工程代建制的兴起和动因、国内外研究现状、论文研究的意义、研究思路和方法等。公共工程代建制的产生源自政府投资非经营性项目超规模、超概算、超标准问题突出,为克服传统体制中政府机构和事业单位过多直接参与项目建设实施的弊端,提高政府投资效益,在公共工程领域引入市场机制,发挥私人机构的作用来提供公共产品。公共工程代建制的兴起有现实需求,也得到了规范的认可。
  第一章,公共工程代建制与面临的行政法问题。公共工程代建制是在全球民营化大背景下,在中国体制转轨和公共工程供给市场化的变革中生成的具有中国特色的公私合作模式。在政府投资非经营性公共工程项目中,公共工程代建制主要有企业单位代建与事业单位代建两种模式,而企业单位代建模式是文章讨论的主要对象。公共工程代建制由试点到推行,遇到的行政法问题包括:法律规范缺失、代建权的权力来源不清、代建合同的法律性质模糊、代建主体间法律关系不明确、代建实施程序不规范、代建政府监管不到位以及代建的争议解决机制不畅通。这些问题一定程度上代表了公私合作行政行为所面临的典型性问题,以此为导向,为论文的展开提供清晰的研究脉络。
  第二章,公共工程代建制的理论基础。从新公共管理理论视野看,公共工程代建制推动了行政任务完成方式的变迁和公共资源配置方式的转变,对公共工程领域公私合作的路径选择、手段选择和救济机制选择造成了深刻影响。在公私合作的路径选择上,行政委托是私人参与程度最深、应用范围最广的类型。基于维护公共利益、降低行政权力行使成本的考虑,公共工程代建制选择行政委托的方式,无论在委托的法定依据、委托范围,还是委托主体与受托主体方面都具备合法性基础。在公私合作的手段选择上,公共工程代建制以非强制性行政行为作为国家履行公共服务职能的首选工具。其中,代建合同将市场经济的契约理念融入公共行政,成为制度实施的核心手段,其以追求公共利益为宗旨、兼顾实现私人利益,以当事人法律地位平等为基础,兼顾特权享有的特征,展现了行政契约的鲜明特性。代建奖励将国家的政策目标寓于积极的利益引导之中,使行政相对人实现权利、追求利益的过程与行政目标的实现相一致,达到国家利益和社会公共利益的增进。在公私合作的救济机制选择上,公共工程代建合同争议主体的多元化和争议内容的多元化,使得任何单一的救济手段难以奏效,对救济方式的整合以及审查规则的整合是应对争议的必然选择。
  第三章,公共工程代建制运行状况的实证研究。公共工程代建制创设了行政机关、代建单位、使用单位之间的多边行政法律关系,在法律关系构成要素的表现形式和内部关系上显示出了鲜明的公私融合特征。代建制法律关系的平衡是通过代建合同来实现的。为了保证代建制所追求的行政目标的实现,应坚持行政机关在合同履行中的主导地位,这不仅是行政契约公益优先的要求,也是法律从实现公共管理目标角度施加给行政相对人的法定责任,但主导性权力的行使要符合比例原则和合理性原则的要求。代建合同的争议格局同样是一个多元化组合,与当下争议解决机制的不统一不协调,构成了救济途径的复杂与混乱的现状。考察公共工程代建制运行程序,对代建项目选择程序、代建人选择程序进行了分析,结合实际案例对公共工程代建制实施以来的绩效进行了评估和论证。
  第四章,规范公共工程代建制的路径分析。公共工程代建制的完善之道在于选择一条适合我国国情的规范路径,沿着立法规范、合同规范、监管机构和监管机制完善的具体方向明确改良的方案。论文提出了从国家层面制定公共工程代建制管理办法的总体设想、立法结构和内容,明确了法律保留原则与公共工程代建项目选择的关系,确立了公共工程代建合同的规制原则、合同规制框架、合同的程序规范与控制以及合同争议解决机制的构想,从比较法层面,分析了有关国家政府投资监管体制的总体构架和管理模式,在研究借鉴的基础上,讨论了我国公共工程代建制监管体制的设计问题,提出了完善政府绩效评估机制、强化投资责任约束机制等设想。

  关键词:公共工程代建制公私合作行政法


  ABSTRACT
  Agent-construction System of Public Works(“Agent-constructionSystem”) is an important system innovation during the reform ofinvestment structure in China. As a new attempt of public-privatepartnership, Agent-construction System changes the role and function ofgovernment and market in the supply of public products.
  Agent-construction System brings about a new issue to the study ofadministrative law, and confronts confuses and challenges in practice whichneed to be responded and supported by the administrative law. This paperattempts to research on this new type of public-private partnership from theview of administrative law, lists the administrative issues confronted in theAgent-construction System practice, and comes up with the solution wayand legalization suggestion through structuring the framework fortheoretical analysis and investigating the status of practical experiment, soas to provide guidelines to reform practice from a public law view.
  This paper consists of five parts.
  The Introduction part mainly makes an introduction to the emergingand motive of the Agent-construction System, domestic and overseasresearch status, significance of the research in this paper, as well as theresearch idea and methods. The Agent-construction System emerges in thereason that non-business projects invested by the government are usuallyultra-scale, over budget and over standard; therefore, private agenciesshould be encouraged to supply public products, in order to overcome thedisadvantages arising from excessive direct participating by thegovernment authorities and government-sponsored institutions in theproject construction in the traditional system, to improve investmentefficiency of the government, and to introduce market mechanism intopublic works. The emergence of Agent-construction System is to meet thecurrent demand, and it has been authorized by the laws and regulations.
  Chapter 1 focuses on the relevant concepts about Agent-constructionSystem and the administrative law issues confronted by such System. TheAgent-construction System is a new type of public-private partnership withChinese characteristics arising in the course of structural transition andmarketization of the supply of public works in China, against thebackground of privatization in the whole world. For the public worksprojects invested by government, there are two modes, i.e. agentconstruction by enterprises and agent construction bygovernment-sponsored institutions, among which, the agent construction byenterprises is the focus of this paper. The administrative issues confrontedby the Agent-construction System, from its experiments to implementation,include, absence of legal norms, unclearness of the source of power,ambiguity of the legal nature of the agent construction contracts, unclarifyof the legal relationship between the parties relating to the agentconstruction, lack of standardization of the implementation procedures ofthe agent construction, lack of government supervisory, and inefficiency ofdisputes settlement system of the agent construction. The above mentionedproblems are typical issues confronted by the public-private partnershipadministrative behavior, and provide clear research scheme for this paper.
  Chapter 2 states the theoretical basis of the Agent-construction System.
  From the view of the new public management theory, theAgent-construction System promotes the transition of the completionmethod of administrative tasks and the transformation of distribution ofpublic resources, which will exert significance influence on the choice ofpath, method and relieve mechanism for the public-private partnership inthe area of public works. For the path choice of the public-privatepartnership, the administrative entrustment is the a type involving the mostparticipation of the private institutions and the application of which is thewidest.。Administrative entrustment has gained the legal basis on the legalfoundation of entrustment, the scope of entrustment, the entrusting partyand the entrusted party; therefore, the Agent-construction System choosingthe mode of administrative entrustment will be beneficial to safeguardpublic interest and reduce the costs for exercising administrative authority.
  As for the method choice of the public-private partnership, theAgent-construction System chooses non-enforcing administrative acts asthe first choice for government to perform its public service function. Theagent construction contracts bring the contract idea of market economy intopublic administration, and turn into the key method of the Systemimplementation. Agent-construction system integrates the state policy goalthe positive guide, align the process of realization of the rights and pursuitof interest by administration with the realization of the administrative target,enhancing the state intrest and social public interest. In term of choosingthe remedial regime for the public-private partnership, the diversification ofthe parties and subject matter of the agent-construction system disputerenders less effective any single remedy, therefore the integration of theremedial methods and that of the review rules are the inevitable choice inresponse to the dispute.
  Chapter 3, Evidential research of the operation circumstances of theagent-construction system. Agent-construction system establishes thepoly-lateral relations amongst administrative entities, construction unit, anduse unit, and has manifested evidencing idiosyncrasy of merging public andprivate entities in terms of the external form and internal relations of thefactors of the legal relations. The balance of legal relations in respect of theagent-construction system is achieved through the contract thereof. For thepurposes of achievement of the administrative target pursued by theagent-construction system, the leading position of the administrative entityin the performance of the contract shall be retained, which is not therequirement of the priority of public interest in the administrative contractbut also the legal responsibility imposed on the administrative subject bythe law from the perspective of realizing public administration target.
  However, the exercise of the leading power shall conform with theprinciple of proportionality and reasonableness. The pattern of the disputeof agent-construction contract is also a diversified composition, and thedeviance from the present dispute resolution system constitutes thecomplicated and chaotic situation of the remedial method. This essayexamines the operation procedure of the agent-construction system,analyzes the three agent selection procedures, namely open bidding, limitedcomparison and direct engagement in accordance with such values asfairness and efficiency.
  Chapter 4, Analysis of the Roadmap for Regulating theAgent-construction System. The resolution for perfection theagent-construction system relies on the choice of a roadmap that suits thesituation of our country, and a specific, orientated, and clear plan perfectedfollowing the principles of regulated legislation, acts, contracts, regulationentity and mechanism. This essay proposes the general concept, legislativestructure and content of formulating regulative methods of theagent-construction system at the state level, clarifies the relationshipbetween the principle of legal reservation and choice of agent-constructionsystem, establishes the principles of entering into the contracts thereof,mode of contract standardization, and dispute resolution, and analyzes,from the perspective of comparative laws, the general structure andadministration model of the state and governmental investment regulationmechanism; discusses the issue of the design the regulation mechanism onthe basis of research and reference, proposes the general ideal forimproving the evaluation mechanism and enhance the control mechanismof investment responsibility.

  KEY WORDS: Public works, agent construction system,public-private partnership, administrative law

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