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论文中英文摘要

时间:2015-06-24 来源:未知 作者:致谢2号编辑 本文字数:5621字

  Abstract

  Since the latter half of the 20th century, the quality of higher education is facing a crisisof confidence, more and more people started to pay attention to and try to participate in theuniversity affairs, thus, the western higher education organizations put forward the concept ofcommon governance. At the same time, in the view of our country attach more importance tothe construction of modern university system and the improvement of governance structure touniversity. This paper discuss the governance structure of Lehigh University by using theliterature studies, case studies, interviews and other research methods from the aspect ofstakeholder. The paper aims to enhance people's awareness about the western universitystakeholders participate in the university common governance, to provide reference for thereform of our country's university governance structure, and to promote the construction ofmodern university system.

  Firstly, the paper clarifies the importance and possibility to carry out the research aboutuniversity governance. It analyzes the present situation of university governance andstakeholder of China and other foreign countries. According to the reference, previousscholars had made tremendous contributions on the study of university governance, but theydidn't make a thorough investigation about the governance structure of foreign universities.

  Secondly, it analyzes the organizational structure and the governance situation of LehighUniversity, discussing the relationship between Lehigh University governance andstakeholders. Inside the university, the research takes the board of trustees, president,administrator, teacher and student as the objects of analysis. Outside the university, it takesthe government, enterprise, alumni, and community as the objects of analysis. Depending onthe research, we found that the characteristics of Lehigh University is common governance.

  Thirdly,it analyzes the formative factor of Lehigh University governance structure, theconflicts and coordination of stakeholders. It exists many factors having a important influenceon university governance structure, including the history and tradition of western highereducation, diversified sources of funding, and university bylaws. Futhermore, several factorscreate the conflicts between stakeholders. Therefore, the paper analyzes the effectivemeasures of Lehigh University in this aspect.

  At last, based on the situation and problems of our universities, the paper compares thesimilarities and differences of governance structure between our universities and LehighUniversity. It proposes several measures for improving the university governance structure.

  We need to update the idea of governance, and formulate university bylaws. Our universitiesshould develop the external relations, and we need to establish a new concept of highereducation quality.

  Keywords: Stakeholder; University Governance Structure; Lehigh University

  Abstract

  A brief history of the development of China's postgraduate education has, but its growth isquite fast. It has made great achievements. In China, one of the main purposes ofpostgraduate education is to train a group of top-notch talent, they have a high level of ability,innovation ability. Thereby enhancing national competitiveness, social and economicdevelopment, achieves scientific tasks.

  From a historical perspective, since 1902, the Qing government promulgated the 'RenyinSchooling'; the concept of postgraduate education in our country has basically formed. Inspite of this,by the special period of the political, economic, social, cultural and other factors,postgraduate education development is not smooth. Since the founding of the People'sRepublic of China in 1949, the emergence of the “cultural revolution” led to the suspension ofpostgraduate education for almost 12 years. In 1978,postgraduate education was restored.

  The government established a series of policies about higher education, inspired thedevelopment of graduate education. Whether enroll scale or enroll professional number, madegreat breakthroughs than ever before. Master graduate student enroll scale expandsunceasingly,the number is growing rapidly. As the world's second largest graduate educationcountry, America's first. Coupled with the growing public demand for receiving highereducation, as well as the financial crisis impact on the job market for many times, make thegraduate student's scale is growing in recent years. In 2013, the number of graduateenrollment has reached 176 million, taking the number was 53.9 million. However, big butnot strong. The number of graduate enrollment surge, while the quality of their educationthere is downward trend. How to ensure the quality of graduate education in theever-expanding number of momentum, it will be problems in the future for a long period oftime to be studied in academia.

  Graduate student enrollment system in China, including four parts: the admission planmanagement system, admission examination and registration system, exam system,enrollment system. In our country, the formation of postgraduate enrollment system hasexperienced a very tortuous and very long process. In 1951,enrollment plan managementsystem began to form. The government to unified enrollment plan. In 1978,for the first timeto determine the examination system in our country consists of first and second interviewtogether. In change, the perfecting of postgraduate enrollment system. However, with TheTimes change and the emergence of new situations, change continues. Under the influence ofvarious factors such as politics,economy, all kinds of defects in the change of mastergraduate student enrollment system constantly emerges. This requires we should be in adynamic developing constantly exploring of postgraduate enrollment system for change, inorder to make sure it is a development,scientific system.

  This study based on the evolution of graduate student development policy in China.

  According to the change of major turning point event, and of postgraduate enrollment systemreform of our country is divided into four periods, and study respectively. To explore thechange characteristics of each stage, change direction, and the overall development trend.

  Summed up the experience and problems in change. At the same time of other relevantcountries on international experience in graduate student enrollment system reform wereanalyzed. Calculated the graduate student enrollment system in our country's practical changeSuggestions: (1) change the way of enrollment plan,the increase in colleges and universitiesand teacher autonomy, (2) the first try for the qualification examination, explore a two-partexamination method, lighten the impact on undergraduate teaching,(3) in order to ensure theresearch quality, to recognize the examinee enter oneself for an examination when increasingthe incentive to the examinee, (4) stick to recommend an exemption system and development,to further explore the second-round exam system and abnormality admits system.

  Key words: Postgraduate student; Recruit examination system; Reform

  Abstract

  Examination is control machine hidden in the country, it's not only will help the countryselect the talented person, but also guide the value orientations. Essay,as a comprehensivereflection of a mother tongue literacy, which helps to design the criteria that candidates needand the many indicators of language skills. It is a indispensable part of exam project invarious countries and regions. The American SAT is a kind of exams to test students1 learningabilities, it equal to the Chinese College Entrance Examination. In recent years, theworldwide impact of the SAT caused extensive discussion, thus, the research on SAT essayexam about the value orientations and the control has a great meaning on our country.

  By integrating Wu Yongjun's analysis model about the value orientation, this papermakes the SAT essay as the research object to analyze it from two dimensions of the externalvalues and intrinsic values. The Extrinsic value orientation, include the essay's form, contentand scoring standard, while the intrinsic values include the theme,expression and also thescoring standard. The first part introduces the American SAT exam profiles, in order to havesome understanding of the research object. The second part of analyze the external dimensionof the value orientation, we get the feature of it. They are speculativity,the guiding to thecandidates to broaden their horizons and a “man” to “people” value return to characteristics.

  The third part is the research of the intrinsic values, which feature is that the essay is closelylinked to the mainstream values and the effective realization of the national guidance control.

  Finally, this paper summarize the characteristics of the SAT,,and based on our previousstudies on our country's essay,to get to the final result that our country can come towardsthe “post-Proposition era” from essay's form, the essay's content should open “the diversityera” as well as the expression of the essay can be “hidden” values, “dominant” the expressionpattern of improvement inspiration.

  Key Words: SAT; essay; value orientations; the value of education

  ABSTRACT

  A sound collective construction land transfer system is preceding theestablishment of an urban-rural integrated construction land market.

  First, rural collective construction land transfer shall possess a solid basisthat integrates laws, policies, public poll and practices. Equal ownership is thelegal basis. The drawbacks of the former rural land acquisition system facilitatethe collective system and the regional practice proves to be effective, whichprovides a institutional experience for the transfer in its legal level.

  Second, the dissertation analyzes normative documents and regionalpractice related to collective construction land transfer. A further anatomy of thelocal normative documents and their logic structure makes clear a divergence inpolicies and laws making between urban and rural construction land market, aswell as varied functions over the land use. Meanwhile, the paper conducts a casestudy on the pilots of collective construction land market in Huzhou (Zhejiang),Wuhu (Anhui), Chongqing, Chengdu (Sichuan), Nanhai (Guangdong), Suzhou(Jiangsu) and Kushan, and summarizes their experiences and problems.

  Finally, the dissertation puts forward a restructuring of collectiveconstruction land transfer system with the context of the urban and ruralintegration and legislatively defines its purpose and land practices. Two thirds ofthe farmer community members approve of land sales, rental, transfer, mortgageand other legal uses and the land thereafter is able to be further transferredwithout consent. All collective land users or owners are able to mortgage theland. The income of land should be distributed on the principle of fairness andgives the priority to the weak group. Besides, within an urban-rural integratedconstruction land market, it is also necessary to perfect taxation and marketsupervision and enhance land planning, management and social security, toprevent the passive issues.

  KEYWORD: collective construct land, land transfer, land market, incomedistribution

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