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论文英文摘要怎么写

时间:2016-03-10 来源:未知 作者:致谢2号编辑 本文字数:4555字

  英文摘要范例如下:

  ABSTRACT:

    In the socialist market economy system, China has been in the lack of standardizedinstitutional arrangements about which service and goods should be responsible by thegovernment or which should be responsible by themarket or social forces.In fact, the absenceand the offsideof government functions have plagued economic system reform andfmancialsystem reformin China. In the past time,the market has provided some basic publicservice and goods which should be responsible by the government, on the other hand, thegovernment, especially local government, has paid excessive attention and money to theeconomic construction, and did not helpthe market play a sufficient role in allocatingsocialresources. The fmacial and tax reform has brought a revolutionary impact on theestablishment of inter-governmental fiscal relations since 1994, but the reformmainlyfocusedon the revenue-sharing system, and then the problems about duty division andexpending responsibility have been not fully taken into account,which influencedfmancialsystem reform.

  In inter-governmentalfiscal relations, Western governments' revenue are in accordancewith their expending responsibility, the socialist market economy system in China shoulddelimit the government' duty and expending responsibility firstly, and then, divide financialpower and regulate financial resources. The central government and local government'sresponsibilities should be performanced reasonably and effectively, at the same time, thegovernment should help the market play a good role in providing service and goods in avariety of ways, such as in the way of laws and regulations,or of buying market's service andgoods and so on. Among all these, the law-based governance and democratization are thebasic premise.

  The paper take education as example in discussing duty and expenditureresponsibility ofthe central government and the local government and the market, for raising government'sefficiency in providing public goods. More narrowly, Basic education, preschool education,higher education, vocational education and so on are all public goods, but they can bringdifferent effectiveness to the society, so their degree of publicness are different,and then theirmain body of supplies are accordingly different. When authority and expending responsibilityof governments at all levels are explicit, these public goods can be provided effectively andreasonably and adequately, and the market' role can be played reasonably and adequately.

  How is the government' duty division and expending responsibility? How to supervisethe expending responsibility of governments at all levels? The paper also raise the problemabout evaluating the providing of public goods. In evaluation, the paper bring the adequacy,equivalence, effectiveness as the basic standards in public goods' providing. Performingevaluation can be taken as the basis for the power division among governments, as well as tliebasis for the reform of public goods providing. Changing the reality that the public goods aredepend on the government into diversified supply. That is to say,some public goods can bepaid by the government at a higher level, and then entrust the lower-level government withoperating. In some other situations^ the public goods can be paid by the government, and thenbring market competition into public goods' supply in order to improve the efficiency ofsupply.

  Abstract:

  In modern society,the word of children (childhood) has exceeded its ownconnotation. It has become an important carrier which undertakes multiple values in thefamily, society and even the nation. Besides, it is of greater importance to know andunderstand children. With social reforms and changes of times, children'sself-awareness and ability of taking actions independently are more and more obviouswith remarkable diversity and specialty. It also brings some challenges on ourknowledge and understanding of children. Therefore, it is of particular significance tochoose an appropriate perspective and adopt a reasonable method in order to know aridunderstand children.

  The researcher utilizes the Life-World of Phenomenology as the foundation ofepistemology and methodology. Adopting children's perspective and childrenperspective, the researcher investigates children's life in the kindergarten and usesnarrative method to organize and display materials. The aim of this study is to describechildren's life state in the kindergarten,interprets their living experiences, and furthertrace back to children's circumstances and at last find out the deep reasons.

  The study belongs to qualitative research. It mainly employs literature researchmethod,observation method, interview method and text analysis method. First of all,the researcher reviews a lot of literatures, and on this basis to find out the theoreticalfoundation and the path to the children's life world and narrative framework, which actas the guidance of research method. Second, the researcher adopts observation,interview and text collection method on the site, so as to collect the useful materials andda1, u such as children's living scenes,interactions with children and children's works.

  Third, the author summarizes and analyzes the data through the interaction“ mode, toensure the validity of the study the by ensuring authenticity of the first-hand data, andapplying multiple collection methods, testifying multiple subjects mutually, andintegrating diverse angles. Fourth, according to the contents of children's living world,the author adopts the narrative method to describe A, C, W and J children's life state,tointerpret their living experiences, and to trace back to the circumstances, on the purposeof finding out the deep reasons.

  The results are as follows: firstly, A's life and emotional state shows great contrastin and outside of the kindergarten. In the kindergarten, A severs her connection with thecollective, lacks of basic self-care ability, exhibits more compliant and socialwithdrawal behaviors, but outside of it, A behaves more freely and lightly. The starkcontrast of two living states indicates that the child feel uneasy, anxious and weary inthe kindergarten and craves for approval and love outside of it. The main reasonaccounting for this is the excessive care and the absence of parental education at home.

  Secondly,C 's seemingly enjoys a position of authority and exhibits more confidencein kindergarten? but behind scenery he experiences much tiredness, boredom andanxiety. It has close relation with grandmother's educational practices and absence ofparental education. Thirdly,W child seems to take pleasure in bumping against peers orobjects, tends to dominate others, always tries to argue with someone and stronglydefend for herself after making mistakes, in fact he only want to get more attention andapproval by this means. It is mainly caused by special growing environment and lack ofcare and love in the long term. Finally, although J does not win the favor in thekindergarten, she is calmly assertive. She experiences more joy and easiness, at thesame time, mixed with a little bit of grievance. It owns to her brother's company andmother's good education.

  At the same time,organizing invalid educational activities, conducting inequitablecompetitions and neglecting children's nature and special need also have a greatinfluence on children's negative experience. Besides family and kindergarten, China'ssocial reality that many children are brought up by grandparents, that the survivalconditions of preschool teachers is in serious situation and that childhood is inentertainment crisis, more or less have direct or indirect effect on children's livingexperience.

  In order to create a positive educational environment, first of all, we should form areasonable and scientific view on children and education, understand children's realneed in development and try to meet the need. On the one hand, we can make more andmore parents to raise awareness of parental role and become competent parents byconducting large-scale parental education. On the other hand, we should pay moreattention to kindergarten teachers' professional development and adopt many ways topromote it,such as improving professional happiness, creating teachers' practicalknowledge and carrying out action research and so on.
  
   So far as the society, we need tobuild up a system to support preschool education. First, everyone should foster”children consciousness“,to create a macro system to the children's development;second, a variety of organizations should pull together to build up an external system topromote the healthy growth of children; third, the family,kindergarten and community(neighborhood) should cooperate sincerely and make common efforts to create a worldfull of love for children as an intermediate system; fourth, both as children's significantothers, the family and kindergarten should practice more meaningful cooperation as amicro system; finally, we should integrate the macro system, externalsystem, intermediate system and micro system, to promote the dynamic development ofall systems.

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