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婚约财产纠纷中的法律难题探析

时间:2019-01-18 来源:河南大学 作者:杨赛依 本文字数:4237字
  摘 要
  
  婚约作为我国一项传统的风俗习惯,在我国已有几千年历史,有着极为重要的地位。但是建国之后的立法一味地强调“破旧立新”,剔除封建主义思想、文化,对婚约制度采取了避而不谈的态度。然而民间的婚约现象并没有因此而消失,并且因婚约而引发的纠纷依然广泛存在,并且伴随人们生活水平的提高,婚约财产纠纷所涉及到的财产种类越来越多、财产价值越来越大,不仅有彩礼、首饰,一些案件中还有价值更高的房屋、汽车等,如果不能妥善解决将会激化当事双方的矛盾,对当事人、社会都会带来极大的负面影响。自 2004 年起开始施行的我国《婚姻法司法解释二》对彩礼返还规则做出了相关规定,实现了我国婚约彩礼规定从无到有的跨越,但因其规定模糊不清、不够明确充分,导致实务中案件处理时法官没有具体统一的裁判依据,自由裁量权过大,同案不同判现象严重。因此婚约财产纠纷中产生如此之多的问题,亟待立法的完善加以解决。
  
  通过梳理实务中的典型案例,发现婚约财产纠纷中存在的主要法律问题有:婚约财产案件中的彩礼返还范围难确定、现有的彩礼返还规则难操作,案件当事人诉讼地位不确定、代理人代理权被滥用等,而这些问题产生的原因分别有立法的缺失、理论界对婚约财产纠纷实务的研究不充分、社会上对婚约习惯存在的一些偏见和误解等。
  
  解决这些实务中出现的问题有现实必要性。而要想解决实务中出现的问题,既要对婚约习惯有客观正确的充分认识,也要了解婚约财产纠纷背后所涉及到的法理依据。通过对婚约本质的研究,认定婚约具有契约性,但是婚约是一种特殊的契约,具有一定的人身属性,能对当事人产生道德上的权利义务。而且婚约虽然不是结婚的法定程序,但是实际上与婚姻的缔结有前后承接关系,是男女对婚姻的事先约定,没有婚约中达成的结婚的合意,就没有婚姻的缔结。
  
  当下西方大多数有婚约习俗的国家仍然通过立法对婚约制度加以规范调整,通过对我国台湾地区以及德国、瑞士等国家的婚约制度立法现状的归纳和整理以及分析研究,在我国亲属法中重新建立婚约制度也具有现实必要性,然而我国与其他地区、国家国情不同,且基于不同的传统民俗、历史发展、宗教信仰、法律背景,在我国不适合再另外建立婚约解除损害赔偿制度来对婚约财产纠纷进行解决。

婚约财产纠纷中的法律难题探析
  
  最后在以上的研究与思考之基础上,提出了对婚约制度立法、彩礼返还范围、返还比例、返还规则、婚约财产纠纷当事人确定、以及代理人代理权限制等方面的立法建议,希望立法者未来能够在民法典婚姻法部分纳入婚约制度,通过法律对婚约习惯进行规范,并在彩礼返还规则上加以完善,细化彩礼返还规则,加入无过错保护、以及妇女权益保护等考量因素。而程序法也应当对婚约财产纠纷案件的当事人进行明确,婚约财产案件的当事人应当仅限于婚约男女当事人本人,同时应当对代理人代理权进行明确限制,规定在无特殊情况下当事人必须亲自出庭,防止代理人权利被滥用。并建议在立法之前发布典型指导性案例,以便尽早对这些实务中出现的问题进行解决。
  
  关键词:婚约,彩礼纠纷,返还规则
  
  ABSTRACT
  
  As a traditional custom of our country, engagement has been a very important position in our countryfor thousands of years.However, after the founding of the People's Republic of China, the legislationemphasizes "abolishing the old and estab1ishing the new", which excludes the feudal ideology and culture,and adopts the attitude of avoiding the engagement.But the civic engagement phenomenon did notdisappear, engagement and the disputes caused by engagement are still widespread, and with theimprovement of people's living standard, there are more and more kinds of property involved in thedisputes over engagement property, and the value of property is getting bigger and bigger, not only thedowry, jewelry, but also some valuable houses and cars in some cases. If it can not be properly resolved, itwill intensify the contradictions between both concerned parties, and will have a great negative impact onthe parties and the society.Since 2004,China's Marriage Law Judicial Interpretation II has made relevantprovisions on the return rules of the bride price, and has realized the stipulation of the engagement betrothalgifts in China from scratch.However, because of its vague and unambiguous provisions, the judge has nospecific unified referee basis, too large discretion and serious differences in the case of the samecase.Therefore, there are so many problems arising from engagement disputes that we need to be improvedby legislation.
  
  By combing the typical cases in the practice, the main problems in the cases of engagement propertydispute are as follows: the scope of the reversion of the bride price is difficult to be determined, the existingrules of the reversion of the betrothal gifts are too abstract so that it is difficult to operate, the status of thelitigants in the case uncertainty, the agent's right to be misused, and so on. And the causes of these problemsare the lack of legislation, the insufficient theoretical research on the practice of the divorce dispute cases,and some prejudice and misunderstanding about the existence of the marriage habits in society.
  
  It is necessary to solve the problems in these practices.In order to solve the problems in practice, weshould not only have an objective and correct understanding of the engagement, but also understand thelegal basis of the settlement of the marriage dispute.Through the study of the nature of the marriagecontract, it is found that the engagement is contractual, but the engagement is a special kind of contract,which has a certain personal property and can produce moral rights and obligations to the parties.Andalthough the marriage contract is not the legal procedure of marriage, but in fact, there is a relationshipbetween the engagement and the marriage, it is a marriage agreement between men and women, nomarriage agreement in the marriage, there is no marriage.
  
  At present,most of the countries in the west that have the custom of engagement still adopt thelegislation to regulate the marriage contract. Through the summary and analysis of the legislative status ofthe engagement system in Taiwan and Germany, Switzerland and other countries, it is also necessary to reestablish the system of engagement in our country's kinship law. However, China is different from otherregions and countries, and based on different traditional folklore, historical development, religious beliefand legal background,in our country it is not suitable for engagement to remove damage compensationsystem to solve the engagement property disputes.
  
  Finally, on the basis of the above research and thinking, the legislative proposals on the legislation ofthe marriage system, the scope of the return of the bride price, the proportion of return, the rule of return,the parties to the disputes of the marital property disputes, and the restriction of the agent's agency rightsare put forward.This article hopes that the legislator will be able to include the marriage system in the civilcode marriage law in the future, standardize the marriage customs through the law, improve the rules of thereversion of the bride price, refine the rules of the reversion of the bride price, add the protection of no fault,and the protection of the rights and interests of women and other considerations.And the procedural lawshould also make clear that the parties to the marriage contract dispute case should be clearly defined. Theparties to the marriage contract should only be limited to the parties to the marriage contract. At the sametime, the agent's right of agency should be restricted clearly, and the parties must appear in person in personwithout special circumstances and prevent the abuse of the rights of the agent.It also suggests that typicalguidance cases should be issued before legislation, so as to solve problems arising from these practices asearly as possible.
  
  Keywords:The marriage contract, The bride price disputes, The return rules
  
  目 录
  
  摘 要.
  
  ABSTRACT
  
  目 录.
  
  引 言
  
  一、几起典型婚约财产纠纷所反映司法实践中存在的问题

  
  (一)典型案例.
  (二)我国婚约财产纠纷中存在的法律问题.
  1.彩礼返还范围缺标准.
  2.彩礼返还规则难操作.
  3.婚约财产纠纷当事人诉讼地位难确定.
  4.婚约财产纠纷案件中代理人的代理权被滥用.
  
  二、婚约财产纠纷法律问题产生的原因
  
  (一)婚约制度规定的不足是问题产生的立法原因.
  1.建国以来我国婚姻法对婚约制度采取避而不谈的态度.
  2.司法解释中规定的婚约彩礼返还规则过于简单.
  (二)对婚约习惯的研究不充分是问题产生的理论原因.
  (三)对婚约习惯的偏见和误解是问题产生的社会原因.
  
  三、婚约财产纠纷法律问题解决的必要性
  

  (一)明确婚约的本质与效力是解决问题的基础.
  (二)化解社会矛盾与完善相关制度是解决问题的现实需求.
  
  四、域外典型国家及地区婚约制度立法规定之比较
  
  (一)域外典型国家及地区的法律规定.
  (二)域外典型国家及地区婚约制度对我国婚约立法的参考.
  
  五、解决我国婚约财产纠纷法律问题的相关建议
  
  (一)实体法方面.
  1.将婚约制度纳入民法典婚姻法部分.
  2.具体条文设计应当对婚约财产问题进行规范.
  (二)程序法方面.
  1.应明确婚约财产纠纷案件当事人的范围.
  2.应对婚约财产纠纷案件代理人的代理权予以限制.
  (三)最高院在立法之前发布代表性指导性案例.
  
  结 语
  
  参考文献
    杨赛依. 我国婚约财产纠纷法律问题研究[D].河南大学,2018.
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