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国内低碳经济发展公共政策缺陷探讨

时间:2017-07-10 来源:学术堂 所属分类: 公共管理硕士论文 本文字数:7079字
        摘 要: 低碳经济作为现阶段全球科学化发展和绿色化发展的最有效途径之一,可以说一直以来受到国内外学者和各国政府的高度关注。由于低碳经济本身具有一定的公共物品的基础属性,所以决定了要想发展好低碳经济就必须由政府通过公共政策的制定和执行来推动和引导其不断向前发展。目前我国的低碳经济发展正面临着能源消耗和碳排放持续双增长的严峻态势,在国际上对我国施加的减碳压力也十分巨大,对我国而言整个的形势是机遇与挑战并存且机遇还是大于挑战的。通过对国内低碳领域中公共政策进行较为全面的、系统的、深入的研究,一方面可以进一步发挥低碳作用并将其作为我国未来生态文明建设和五位一体发展的一项重要举措,另一方面还可以通过发展良好的低碳经济为推动国民经济发展增强动力。
  
  本文从界定与低碳经济相关概念和明晰相关基础性的理论入手,进一步阐述低碳发展领域内的相关概念和研究基础背景。在理论研究基础上通过数据调查和资料的分类研究,对“十二五”期间国内发展低碳经济的有关公共政策进行了划类别的分析并从全国层面和地方区域两个维度和强制性、引导性、市场性三个政策分类进行了较为详尽的研究。通过与国外典型国家的发展经验进行比较,找出目前我国国内促进低碳经济发展中的公共政策的设计存在的具体问题,在吸收和借鉴典型经验做法的基础上提出了构建中国特色低碳经济的公共政策体系,并在构建低碳战略体系、建立完善法律制度、优化低碳财税政策、强化低碳技术研发等方面推出优化建议。
  
  关键词:低碳经济;公共政策。
  
  Abstract:Low-carbon economy, as one of the most effective ways to develop and develop theglobal scientific and green development at the present stage, can be said to have beenhighly concerned by domestic and foreign scholars and governments at home and abroad.Due to the low carbon economy itself is the basic property of a certain degree of publicgoods, it was decided to develop Low-carbon economy must by the government throughthe formulation and implementation of public policy to promote and guide the continuousforward. Currently in our country the development of Low-carbon economy is facingenergy consumption and carbon emissions continue to double the growth of the grimsituation, in the world of our country applied reducing carbon pressure is also very large,for our country the situation as a whole is both opportunities and challenges andopportunities outweigh the challenges. Through the comprehensive, system, in-depth studyof public policy in the field of low carbon, on the one hand can further develop low carbonand its as an important measure of our country in the future construction of ecologicalcivilization and one of the five development. On the other hand can also through thedevelopment of Low-carbon economy in order to promote the development of the nationaleconomy to enhance the power of.
  
  This paper begins with the definition of related concepts and related basic theory ofLow-carbon economy, and further expounds the related concepts and research backgroundin the field of low carbon development. On the basis of theoretical research in theclassification of survey data and information, during the National Twelfth Five-Year Planperiod, the domestic development of Low-carbon economy in public policy are zonedcategory analysis and from the national level and local area in two dimensions and themandatory and guidance, market of three policy classification of detailed research.Through the development experience of foreign typical countries and were compared tofind out the current our country to promote specific problems existed in the design ofpublic policy in the development of Low-carbon economy, in the absorption and referencebased on the typical experience of the proposed building a Low-carbon economy withChinese characteristics of public policy system, and in the construction of low carbonstrategy system, establish and improve the legal system, low carbon tax policyoptimization, enhanced low-carbon technology research and development introducedoptimization is proposed.
  
  Key words: Low-carbon economy;Public policy.

     目 录

第 1 章 绪论..............................................................................................................................1
1.1 选题背景与研究意义.................................................................................................1
1.1.1 选题背景.............................................................................................................................1
1.1.2 研究意义.............................................................................................................................2
1.2 国内外文献综述.........................................................................................................3
1.2.1 国外研究综述.....................................................................................................................3
1.2.2 国内研究综述.....................................................................................................................5
1.3 研究的方法与思路.....................................................................................................7
1.3.1 研究方法.............................................................................................................................7
1.3.2 研究思路.............................................................................................................................8
第 2 章 理论研究基础................................................................................................................9
2.1 相关概念界定............................................................................................................. 9
2.1.1 低碳.....................................................................................................................................9
2.1.2 低碳经济...........................................................................................................................10
2.2 理论基础....................................................................................................................12
2.2.1 公共物品理论..................................................................................................................12
2.2.2 外部效应理论..................................................................................................................12
2.2.3 可持续发展理论..............................................................................................................13
2.2.4 政府管制理论..................................................................................................................14
第 3 章 中国低碳经济发展的公共政策................................................................................15
3.1 中国发展低碳经济政策..............................................................................................15
3.1.1 强制性政策.......................................................................................................................16
3.1.2 引导性政策.......................................................................................................................17
3.1.3 市场性政策.......................................................................................................................26
3.2 以济南为例研究地方发展低碳经济政策................................................................32
3.2.1 强制性政策......................................................................................................................32
3.2.2 引导性政策......................................................................................................................33
3.2.3 市场政策..........................................................................................................................36
第 4 章 我国当前低碳经济发展公共政策中的问题和不足..............................................37
4.1 中国低碳经济发展面临形势.....................................................................................37
4.1.1 机遇与挑战并存..............................................................................................................37
4.1.2 能源消耗持续增长..........................................................................................................37
4.1.3 面临国际巨大压力...........................................................................................................39
4.2 低碳公共政策制定中存在的问题.............................................................................40
4.2.1 低碳法律缺位明显...........................................................................................................40
4.2.2 低碳政策针对性偏弱.......................................................................................................40
4.2.3 不同类型政策缺乏协调性...............................................................................................40
4.3 低碳政策执行中存在的不足....................................................................................41
4.3.1 选择性执行政策...............................................................................................................41
4.3.2 缺乏有效监督考核...........................................................................................................41
4.3.3 信息公开宣传缺乏...........................................................................................................42
第 5 章 国外典型低碳经济发展公共政策............................................................................43
5.1 政策的顶层设计..........................................................................................................43
5.1.1 美国的政策经验...............................................................................................................43
5.1.2 澳大利亚的政策经验.......................................................................................................44
5.2 财税政策的设计..........................................................................................................44
5.2.1 美国的政策设计...............................................................................................................44
5.2.2 日本的政策设计...............................................................................................................45
5.3 科技支持政策的运用..................................................................................................46
5.3.1 美国的经验做法...............................................................................................................47
5.3.2 日本的经验做法...............................................................................................................47
5.4 法律法规支持...............................................................................................................47
5.4.1 美国的政策立法...............................................................................................................47
5.4.2 日本的政策立法...............................................................................................................48
5.4.3 印度的政策立法...............................................................................................................48
5.5 国外低碳政策实践对我国的启示.............................................................................48
5.5.1 低碳管理方面启示..........................................................................................................48
5.5.2 财税政策的有益借鉴......................................................................................................49
5.5.3 科技政策的运用经验......................................................................................................49
5.5.4 灵活组合的政策体系......................................................................................................50
第 6 章 中国特色低碳经济政策建议....................................................................................51
6.1 构建低碳战略体系......................................................................................................51
6.1.1 加强组织领导...................................................................................................................51
6.1.2 完善政策体系...................................................................................................................51
6.1.3 加大低碳宣传引导...........................................................................................................52
6.2 建立完善法律制度......................................................................................................53
6.2.1 制定基本法.......................................................................................................................53
6.2.2 修订现行法律...................................................................................................................54
6.2.3 解决适用性问题...............................................................................................................54
6.3 优化低碳财税政策......................................................................................................55
6.3.1 完善财政扶持机制...........................................................................................................55
6.3.2 进行税收制度改革...........................................................................................................56
6.4 强化低碳技术研发......................................................................................................57
6.4.1 以技术创新为基础...........................................................................................................57
6.4.2 做好国际合作文章...........................................................................................................57
6.4.3 完善科技人才政策...........................................................................................................58
结论.............................................................................................................................................59
参考文献.....................................................................................................................................60
致谢.............................................................................................................................................62

   
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